Seitdem Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion sind auch rund um das Kaspische Meer vier neue Staaten aus ehemaligen Sowjetrepubliken. Das Kaspische Meer, auch Kaspisee genannt (aserbaidschanisch Xəzər dənizi, kasachisch Каспий теңізі, persisch دریای خزر / دریای مازندران, DMG Daryā-ye. Kaspisches Meer. Das Kaspische Meer (auch Kaspisee, aserbaidschanisch Xəzər dənizi, kasachisch Каспий теңізі, persisch دریای خزر / دریای مازندران, DMG.
Kaspische Meer Schwankende Pegelstände
Das Kaspische Meer, auch Kaspisee genannt (aserbaidschanisch Xəzər dənizi, kasachisch Каспий теңізі, persisch دریای خزر / دریای مازندران, DMG Daryā-ye. Kaspisches Meer. Das Kaspische Meer (auch Kaspisee, aserbaidschanisch Xəzər dənizi, kasachisch Каспий теңізі, persisch دریای خزر / دریای مازندران, DMG. Wissenschaftler und Ökologen schlagen Alarm: Am Kaspischen Meer könnte sich das Schicksal des Aralsees wiederholen. Der Wasserspiegel.  Das Kaspische Meer und seine Anrainerstaaten Kaufleute mit Waren, die über Handelsrouten vom Kaspischen Meer sowie aus den Zweistromland, Indien. Es ist ungefähr ein Drittel so salzig wie Meerwasser. Trotzdem ist das Kaspische Meer ein See, weil es von Land umschlossen ist. Allerdings. Das Kaspische Meer ist der größte Binnensee der Erde. Es liegt zwischen Osteuropa, Vorder- und Mittelasien in einer erdölreichen und. Das Kaspische Meer (auch Kaspisee, russisch Каспийское море) ist der größte See der Erde. Er liegt in der großen Aral-Kaspi-Senke. Von Nord nach Süd misst.
 Das Kaspische Meer und seine Anrainerstaaten Kaufleute mit Waren, die über Handelsrouten vom Kaspischen Meer sowie aus den Zweistromland, Indien. Das Kaspische Meer, auch Kaspisee genannt (aserbaidschanisch Xəzər dənizi, kasachisch Каспий теңізі, persisch دریای خزر / دریای مازندران, DMG Daryā-ye. Kaspisches Meer. Das Kaspische Meer (auch Kaspisee, aserbaidschanisch Xəzər dənizi, kasachisch Каспий теңізі, persisch دریای خزر / دریای مازندران, DMG.
Kaspische Meer Navigation menu Video🏆 NEDERLANDS KAMPIOEN LEVEL 2 MCI ♥ - 𝘚𝘯𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘣𝘭𝘦
Jahrhundert nach der wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung der Stadt Baku in dieser Zeit. Aserbaidschan Küstenlänge: ca. Zum Verlauf dieser Grenze, siehe unter innereurasische Grenze.
Die Fläche des Kaspischen Meeres beträgt Das Kaspische Meer besitzt keine natürliche Verbindung zu den Ozeanen. Ein früher geläufiger Name war Kaspisee.
Zum bisher letzten Mal geschah dies zu Ende der Eiszeiten, als die Eismassen der sibirischen Gletscher abtauten und die Manytschniederung geflutet wurde.
Im Jahrhundert ging die Wasserfläche von Anfang der er Jahre bis in die er Jahre dramatisch zurück; zu Beginn dieses Zeitraums soll die Seefläche etwa Nach dem Dammbau kam es zur völligen Austrocknung der Lagune und zur Umwandlung in eine für die Umwelt gefährliche Salzwüste.
Da der Einbau von Schleusen in den Jahren — die Situation nicht wesentlich verbesserte, wurde der Damm beseitigt. Dadurch wurden 2 Millionen Hektar Land überflutet.
Der Anstieg des Wasserspiegels um über zweieinhalb Meter  führte zu einem vorläufigen Maximum und stagniert seither, von geringen Änderungen abgesehen.
Die Ursachen für die starken Schwankungen werden vielfach diskutiert. Die wahrscheinlichste Erklärung liegt in Änderungen der Wasserbilanz. Die statistisch signifikante Korrelation mit säkularen Veränderungen in der Entwässerung durch die Wolga wurde durch Rodionov untersucht.
Die Wasserbilanz wird von zahlreichen weiteren Ursachen beeinflusst, die in den letzten Jahren für Schwankungen bis zu sechs Metern verantwortlich waren.
Für Ramiz M. Saisonale Pegelschwankungen von rund 40 cm  werden in der Untersuchung der langfristigen Auswirkungen nicht einberechnet, sind aber bei der kurzfristigen Gefährdung küstennaher Industrieanlagen erheblich.
Als weitere Faktoren zur Entwicklung der Wasserbilanz und ihren weiteren Auswirkungen werden genannt: .
Der Anstieg des Wasserspiegels hat die Anrainerstaaten vor die Notwendigkeit gestellt, die Siedlungen und Industrieanlagen in den überfluteten Gebieten zu schützen.
Bedroht sind insbesondere die Gebiete intensiver Erdöl- und Erdgasförderung und die Industriedeponien mit Gefahrgut. Die Voraussage von , die bis einen weiteren Anstieg um 2,30 m voraussagte, ist offensichtlich nicht eingetreten.
Russische Hydrometeorologen, die sich an bekannten Daten der Klimageschichte orientieren, prognostizierten einen Anstieg bis um 4,5 bis 5 Meter, das würde besonders die Küstenebene Aserbaidschans betreffen.
Allerdings sei das Zusammenwirken der vielen verschiedenen Faktoren für verlässliche Prognosen noch nicht ausreichend erforscht. Im Kaspischen Meer befinden sich zahlreiche Inseln.
Die meisten sind klein und unbesiedelt, aber es gibt auch einige besiedelte. Viele der Inseln nahe Aserbaidschan sind wegen ihrer Erdölvorkommen bedeutsam.
As an endorheic basin , it lies between Europe and Asia ; east of the Caucasus , west of the broad steppe of Central Asia , south of the fertile plains of Southern Russia in Eastern Europe , and north of the mountainous Iranian Plateau of Western Asia.
It has a salinity of approximately 1. It is bounded by Kazakhstan from mid-north to mid-east, Russia from mid-north to mid-west, Azerbaijan to the southwest, Iran to the south and adjacent corners, and Turkmenistan along southern parts of its eastern coast.
Its main freshwater inflow , Europe's longest river, the Volga , enters at the shallow north end as its principal inflow.
Two deep basins form its central and southern zones. These lead to horizontal differences in temperature, salinity, and ecology.
Written accounts from the ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean, probably because of its saltiness and large size.
The Caspian Sea is home to a wide range of species and may be best known for its caviar and oil industries. Pollution from the oil industry and dams on rivers draining into it have harmed its ecology.
The word Caspian is very likely a name for the Caspi , an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia.
The Iranian city of Qazvin shares the root of its name with this common name for the sea. Among Greeks and Persians in classical antiquity it was the Hyrcanian ocean.
This names it after the Khazars , an ancient Turkic nomadic, local tribe. In all these, the second word means "sea", and the first word refers to the historical Khazars who had a large empire based to the north of the Caspian Sea between the 7th and 10th centuries.
Its seafloor is, therefore, a standard oceanic basalt and not a continental granite body. It became landlocked about 5. During warm and dry climatic periods, the landlocked sea almost dried up, depositing evaporitic sediments like halite that were covered by wind-blown deposits and were sealed off as an evaporite sink when cool, wet climates refilled the basin.
Comparable evaporite beds underlie the Mediterranean. Due to the current inflow of fresh water in the north, the Caspian Sea water is almost fresh in its northern portions, getting more brackish toward the south.
It is most saline on the Iranian shore, where the catchment basin contributes little flow. The Garabogazköl embayment , which dried up when water flow from the main body of the Caspian was blocked in the s but has since been restored, routinely exceeds oceanic salinity by a factor of The Caspian is divided into three distinct physical regions: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Caspian.
The Middle—Southern boundary is the Apsheron Threshold , a sill of tectonic origin between the Eurasian continent and an oceanic remnant,  that runs through Zhiloi Island and Cape Kuuli.
Differences between the three regions are dramatic. Over rivers provide inflow to the Caspian, with the Volga River being the largest.
A second affluent, the Ural River , flows in from the north, and the Kura River flows into the sea from the west. In the past, the Amu Darya Oxus of Central Asia in the east often changed course to empty into the Caspian through a now-desiccated riverbed called the Uzboy River , as did the Syr Darya farther north.
The Central Asian steppes stretch across the northeast coast, while the Caucasus mountains hug the western shore. The biomes to both the north and east are characterized by cold, continental deserts.
Conversely, the climate to the southwest and south are generally warm with uneven elevation due to a mix of highlands and mountain ranges ; the drastic changes in climate alongside the Caspian have led to a great deal of biodiversity in the region.
The Caspian Sea has numerous islands throughout, all of them near the coasts; none in the deeper parts of the sea. Ogurja Ada is the largest island.
The Caspian has characteristics common to both seas and lakes. It is often listed as the world's largest lake, although it is not a freshwater lake.
The 1. It contains about 3. The Caspian was once part of the Tethys Ocean , but became landlocked about 5.
Thus the Caspian ecosystem is a closed basin , with its own sea level history that is independent of the eustatic level of the world's oceans.
The level of the Caspian has fallen and risen, often rapidly, many times over the centuries. Some Russian historians [ who?
In , the water level was 28 metres 92 feet below sea level. Over the centuries, Caspian Sea levels have changed in synchrony with the estimated discharge of the Volga, which in turn depends on rainfall levels in its vast catchment basin.
Precipitation is related to variations in the amount of North Atlantic depressions that reach the interior, and they in turn are affected by cycles of the North Atlantic oscillation.
Thus levels in the Caspian Sea relate to atmospheric conditions in the North Atlantic, thousands of kilometres to the northwest.
Since then smaller oscillations have taken place. A study by the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences estimated that the level of the sea was dropping by more than six centimetres per year due to increased evaporation due to rising temperatures caused by climate change.
Its lower reaches are heavily developed with numerous unregulated releases of chemical and biological pollutants. The UN Environment Programme warns that the Caspian "suffers from an enormous burden of pollution from oil extraction and refining, offshore oil fields, radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and huge volumes of untreated sewage and industrial waste introduced mainly by the Volga River".
The magnitude of fossil fuel extraction and transport activity in the Caspian also poses a risk to the environment.
The island of Vulf off Baku , for example, has suffered ecological damage as a result of the petrochemical industry; this has significantly decreased the number of species of marine birds in the area.
Existing and planned oil and gas pipelines under the sea further increase the potential threat to the environment.
The rising level of the Caspian Sea between and reduced the number of habitats for rare species of aquatic vegetation. This has been attributed to a general lack of seeding material in newly formed coastal lagoons and water bodies.
The Caspian turtle Mauremys caspica , although found in neighboring areas, is a wholly freshwater species. The zebra mussel is native to the Caspian and Black Sea basins, but has become an invasive species elsewhere, when introduced.
The area has given its name to several species, including the Caspian gull and the Caspian tern. The Caspian seal Pusa caspica is the only aquatic mammal and is endemic to the Caspian Sea, being one of very few seal species that live in inland waters, but it is different from the those inhabiting freshwaters due to the hydrological environment of the sea.
A century ago the Caspian was home to more than one million seals. Archeological studies of Gobustan Rock Art have identified what may be dolphins  and porpoises ,   or a certain species of beaked whales  and what may be a whaling scene indicates large baleen whales  likely being present in Caspian Sea at least until when the Caspian Sea ceased being a part of the ocean system or until the Quaternary or much more recent periods such as until the last glacial period or antiquity.
From the same artworks, auks , like Brunnich's Guillemot could also have been in the sea as well, and these petroglyphs suggest marine inflow between the current Caspian Sea and the Arctic Ocean or North Sea , or the Black Sea.
The sea's basin including associated waters such as rivers has native species and subspecies of fish in more than 60 genera. The lake proper has natives, including 73 endemics Six sturgeon species, the Russian , bastard , Persian , sterlet , starry and beluga , are native to the Caspian Sea.
The sturgeon yield roe eggs that are processed into caviar. Overfishing has depleted a number of the historic fisheries. Many rare and endemic plant species of Russia are associated with the tidal areas of the Volga delta and riparian forests of the Samur River delta.
The shoreline is also a unique refuge for plants adapted to the loose sands of the Central Asian Deserts. The principal limiting factors to successful establishment of plant species are hydrological imbalances within the surrounding deltas, water pollution , and various land reclamation activities.
The water level change within the Caspian Sea is an indirect reason for which plants may not get established. These affect aquatic plants of the Volga Delta, such as Aldrovanda vesiculosa and the native Nelumbo caspica.
About 11 plant species are found in the Samur River Delta, including the unique liana forests that date back to the Tertiary period. Reptiles native to the region include spur-thighed tortoise Testudo graeca buxtoni and Horsfield's tortoise.
The main geologic history locally had two stages. The first is the Miocene , determined by tectonic events that correlate with the closing of the Tethys Sea.
The second is the Pleistocene noted for its glaciation cycles and the full run of the present Volga.
During the first stage, the Tethys Sea had evolved into the Sarmatian Lake, that was created from the modern Black Sea and south Caspian, when the collision of the Arabian peninsula with Western Asia pushed up the Kopet Dag and Caucasus Mountains , lasting south and west limits to the basin.
This orogeneic movement was continuous, while the Caspian was regularly disconnected from the Black Sea. In the late Pontian, a mountain arch rose across the south basin and divided it into the Khachmaz and Lankaran Lakes or early Balaxani.
The period of restriction to the south basin was reversed during the Akchagylian — the lake became more than three times its size today and took again the first of a series of contacts with the Black Sea and with Lake Aral.
The earliest hominid remains found around the Caspian Sea are from Dmanisi dating back to around 1. More later evidence for human occupation of the region came from a number of caves in Georgia and Azerbaijan such as Kudaro and Azykh Caves.
There is evidence for Lower Palaeolithic human occupation south of the Caspian from western Alburz. These are Ganj Par and Darband Cave sites. Neanderthal remains also have been discovered at a cave in Georgia.
Discoveries in the Hotu cave and the adjacent Kamarband cave , near the town of Behshahr , Mazandaran south of the Caspian in Iran, suggest human habitation of the area as early as 11, years ago.
Later, in the Tang dynasty , the sea was the western limit of the Chinese Empire. The area is rich in fossil fuel. Oil wells were being dug in the region as early as the 10th century to reach oil "for use in everyday life, both for medicinal purposes and for heating and lighting in homes".
English traders Thomas Bannister and Jeffrey Duckett described the area around Baku as "a strange thing to behold, for there issueth out of the ground a marvelous quantity of oil, which serveth all the country to burn in their houses.
This oil is black and is called nefte. There is also by the town of Baku, another kind of oil which is white and very precious [i.
Today, oil and gas platforms abound along the edges of the sea. Soimonov was a pioneering explorer of the sea. He was a hydrographer who charted and made much better known the sea such as its measurements.
He drew a set of four maps and wrote Pilot of the Caspian Sea , the first lengthy report and modern maps.
These were published in by the Russian Academy of Sciences. Countries on the Caspian region, particularly Azerbaijan , Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan , have a universal education legacy left by the Soviet Union.
This underpinning a modest birth rate and wide higher education sector leads them capitalise from their high-value natural-resource-based economies.
This is one where the natural resources , here oil and gas, compose more than 10 percent of the country's GDP and 40 percent of exports. The world energy markets were influenced by Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, as they became strategically crucial in this sphere, thus attracting the largest share of FDI foreign direct investment.
All of the countries are rich in solar energy and harnessing potential, with the highest rainfall much less than the mountains of central Europe in the mountains of the west, which are also rich in hydroelectricity sources.
Iran has high fossil fuel energy potential. It has reserves of Iran has an estimated Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in Caspian littoral states join efforts to develop infrastructure, tourism and trade in the region.
The first Caspian Economic Forum was convened on August 12, in Turkmenistan and brought together representatives of Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran and that state.
It hosted several meetings of their ministers of economy and transport. The Caspian Sea region presently is a significant, but not major, supplier of crude oil to world markets, based upon estimates by BP Amoco and the U.
Energy Information Administration , U. Department of Energy. The region output about 1. More than a dozen countries output more than this top figure.
Caspian region production has been higher, but waned during and after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan.
In , exploration and development of oil began in some of the largest fields known to exist in the world at that time on the Absheron Peninsula near the villages of Balakhanli , Sabunchi , Ramana, and Bibi Heybat.
Total recoverable reserves were more than million tons. By , Baku had more than 3, oil wells, 2, of which were producing at industrial levels.
By the end of the 19th century, Baku became known as the "black gold capital", and many skilled workers and specialists flocked to the city.
By the beginning of the 20th century, Baku was the centre of international oil industry. In , when the Bolsheviks captured Azerbaijan , all private property, including oil wells and factories, was confiscated.
Rapidly the republic's oil industry came under the control of the Soviet Union. By , Azerbaijan was producing a record In , the " Contract of the Century " was signed, heralding extra-regional development of the Baku oil fields.
The Vladimir Filanovsky oil field in the Russian section of the body of water was discovered in It is reportedly the largest found in 25 years.
It was announced in October that Lukoil would start production from it. Baku has the main moorings of all large vessels, such as oil tankers, in Azerbaijan.
It is the largest port of the Caspian Sea. Its transport fleet has 51 vessels: 20 tankers, 13 ferries, 15 universal dry cargo vessels, 2 Ro-Ro vessels, as well as 1 technical vessel and 1 floating workshop.
Its specialized fleet has vessels: 20 cranes, 25 towing and supplying vehicles, 26 passenger, two pipe-laying, six fire-fighting, seven engineering-geological, two diving and 88 auxiliary vessels.
This activity has a rich history. The development of the shipping industry in Azerbaijan is closely connected with the formation and progress of the oil industry.
In the 19th century, the sharp increase in oil production in Baku gave a huge impetus to the development of shipping in the Caspian Sea, and as a result, there was a need to create fundamentally new floating facilities for the transportation of oil and oil products.
Many of the islands along the Azerbaijani coast retain great geopolitical and economic importance for demarcation-line oil fields relying on their national status.
The collapse of the Soviet Union allowed the market opening of the region. This led to intense investment and development by international oil companies.
In , Dick Cheney commented that "I can't think of a time when we've had a region emerge as suddenly to become as strategically significant as the Caspian.
A key problem to further local development is arriving a precise, agreed demarcation lines among the five littoral states.
The current disputes along Azerbaijan's maritime borders with Turkmenistan and Iran could impinge future development.
Much controversy currently exists over the proposed Trans-Caspian oil and gas pipelines. These projects would allow Western markets easier access to Kazakh oil and, potentially, Uzbek and Turkmen gas as well.
Russia officially opposes the project on environmental grounds. Five states are located along about km of Caspian coastline.
The length of the coastline of these countries: . The length of the coastline of these countries: .
The length of the coastline of these countries: . The Caspian Sea is the world's largest salt lake. Its length from north to south is 1, km, average width is km.
Depth reaches near the centre metres, and in the southern part, 1, metres.Seitdem Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion sind auch rund um das Kaspische Meer vier neue Staaten aus ehemaligen Sowjetrepubliken. Aktuelle Wassertemperaturen für das Kaspisches Meer. Die aktuelle Wassertemperatur für beliebte Reiseziele am Kaspischen Meer hier einsehen! Russland hatte in der Vergangenheit den Bau einer transkaspischen Pipeline von Das Letzte Rennen nach Aserbaidschan zu verhindern versucht, um seine Position als Gaslieferant für Europa zu wahren. Mehr Stream Teen Wolf dazu finden Sie in unserer Datenschutzerklärung. Commons Wikivoyage. So ist Turkmenistan am Ostufer des Meeres daran interessiert, seine Energieressourcen über Aserbaidschan nach Südeuropa liefern zu können. Viele der Inseln nahe Aserbaidschan sind wegen ihrer Erdölvorkommen bedeutsam.