Der Krieg endete damit aber noch nicht. Von Bernd Ulrich. Gefangennahme Napoleons III. durch König Wilhelm im Schloss Bellevue in Sedan. Napoleon III., Kaiser der Franzosen, mit Kroninsignien, nach Louis Napoléon) wird in Paris als Sohn von Louis Bonaparte, des. Napoleons Neffe. Napoleon III. in all seiner Pracht. Auch er sah aus wie ein absolutistischer Herrscher, obwohl er sein Kaisertum durch eine Wahl absegnen.
Napoleon 3 Napoleons Neffe
Napoleon III. war unter seinem Geburtsnamen Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte während der Zweiten Republik von 18französischer Staatspräsident und von 18als Napoleon III. Kaiser der Franzosen. Mit dem Staatsstreich vom 2. Napoleon III. (französisch Napoléon III; * April in Paris; † 9. Januar in Chislehurst bei London) war unter seinem Geburtsnamen. Napoleon III., Kaiser der Franzosen, mit Kroninsignien, nach Louis Napoléon) wird in Paris als Sohn von Louis Bonaparte, des. „Das Herz dieser Dame sitzt wohl etwas tief“, soll die Frau Napoleons III. das angesichts der Offenherzigkeit gesagt haben, mit der sich Virginia di. Napoleons Neffe. Napoleon III. in all seiner Pracht. Auch er sah aus wie ein absolutistischer Herrscher, obwohl er sein Kaisertum durch eine Wahl absegnen. Napoleon III., Louis Napoleon, Kaiser der Franzosen, Biographie, Lebenslauf, Steckbrief in zeitgenössischen Postkarten und Texten. Er wird schweigen, warten, aber sein Ziel verfolgen.» Diese Charakterisierung ist repräsentativ für das Bild, das sich Europa von Napoleon III. machte, und.
Napoleon III., Kaiser der Franzosen, mit Kroninsignien, nach Louis Napoléon) wird in Paris als Sohn von Louis Bonaparte, des. „Das Herz dieser Dame sitzt wohl etwas tief“, soll die Frau Napoleons III. das angesichts der Offenherzigkeit gesagt haben, mit der sich Virginia di. Napoleon III Bonaparte. geboren in Paris. gestorben in Chislehurst bei London. bis Kaiser der.
Napoleon 3 Diese Sexfalle trieb Napoleon III. in den KriegÄhnliche Beiträge. So siegte Frankreich für Italiens Einheit. Gefällt mir: Gefällt mir Wird geladen Das damalige Wahlsystem beruhte auf Zetteln, deren Farbe den Kandidaten festlegte. Sie ist vollständig. So trat Frankreich in der Frage der spanischen Thronfolge um Elfen Filme schärfer auf. Als seine Mutter im Sterben lag, kehrte er nach Arenenberg zurück. Johann Strauss widmete ihm Rake Yohn Napoleon-Marsch.
Napoleon 3 Navigation menu VideoNapoléon III et la France épanouie
During visits to relatives in southern Germany and Italy, he became acquainted not only with other exiled victims of the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy but also with the life of a suppressed people, such as those Italians who were living under Austrian and papal rule.
He was, above all, interested in history and inspired by the idea of national liberty. Accordingly, he took part in an unsuccessful plot against the papal government in Rome in and in the rebellion in central Italy in , in which his beloved brother perished.
To be better prepared for his task, he completed his military training and pursued his studies of economic and social problems. Soon after, he felt ready to publish his own writings on political and military subjects.
He thus wanted to make his name known, propagate his ideas, and recruit adherents. Expelled from Switzerland in , he settled in England. In doing so, he obeyed mystical inspirations as well as rationalism.
To him, ideology and politics were the result of rational reflection as well as of belief. The central exponent in history was, in his opinion, the great personality called by Providence and representing progress.
Napoleon I had been such a man, even though he was not allowed to finish his work. Landing with 56 followers, near Boulogne, France, on August 6, , he was again unsuccessful.
He corresponded with members of the French opposition and published articles in some of their newspapers. It was not until May 25, , that he succeeded in escaping and fleeing to Great Britain, where he waited for another chance to seize power.
On hearing of the outbreak of the revolution, in February , he travelled to Paris but was sent back by the provisional government.
Some of his supporters, however, organized a small Bonapartist party and nominated him as their candidate for the Constituent Assembly. Dort führte er die Belagerung der Festung Civita Castellana an.
Am Morgen des Oktober erklärte er den Männern des 4. Infanterieregimentes abgelehnt und niedergeschlagen. November nach Paris gebracht.
An Bord der Fregatte Andromeda reiste er am November über Rio de Janeiro nach New York. Als seine Mutter im Sterben lag, kehrte er nach Arenenberg zurück.
Frankreich verlangte daraufhin von der Schweiz die sofortige Ausweisung Napoleons. Da er jedoch als Offizier in der Schweizer Armee gedient hatte und seit Ortsbürger von Salenstein und Ehrenbürger des Kantons Thurgau war, weigerte sich die Eidgenossenschaft sog.
Frankreich mobilisierte sein Heer, aber Napoleon kam einer kriegerischen Auseinandersetzung durch seine Ausreise nach England zuvor.
Dieser fand am 6. August in Boulogne-sur-Mer statt und scheiterte ebenfalls. Er wurde nun zu lebenslanger Festungshaft in der nordfranzösischen Festung Ham verurteilt.
Am Mai konnte er durch eine abenteuerliche Flucht in das Vereinigte Königreich entkommen. Dort unterhielt er eine Beziehung zu Harriet Howard , einer bekannten Mätresse, welche ihn und seine Rückkehrpläne nach Frankreich auch mit ihrem Vermögen unterstützte.
Zudem wollten viele Kleinbürger und Proletarier Cavaignac wegen seines harten Vorgehens gegen den Juniaufstand nicht als Präsidenten. Dezember übernahm er von Cavaignac die Amtsgeschäfte.
Diese konnten nach einer anfänglichen Niederlage am Juli in Rom eindringen. Durch häufigen Wechsel der Regierungen gelang es ihm, seine Position zu stärken und die Ministerien mit Männern zu besetzen, die ihm gegenüber loyal waren.
Gerade das letzte Kabinett wurde hauptsächlich eingesetzt, um mit der Ernennung Saint-Arnauds die Einsetzung eines ergebenen Helfers zu kaschieren.
Dabei stimmten 7,5 Millionen Franzosen für, November wurde ein Plebiszit zur Wiederherstellung des Kaisertums durchgeführt.
Dabei stimmten 7. Der Hauptgrund für den Erfolg Napoleons liegt in seinem Populismus. Allerdings erhielt er auch von der kapitalistischen Bourgeoisie Unterstützung, deren Grund hauptsächlich eine durch Arbeiteraufstände in Paris ausgelöste Revolutionsangst war.
Das Zweite Kaiserreich begann als autoritäres Empire. Zunächst regierte Napoleon mit absoluter Macht. Es bestand das Mehrheitswahlrecht. Das damalige Wahlsystem beruhte auf Zetteln, deren Farbe den Kandidaten festlegte.
Es gab Wahlempfehlungen der Regierung. Freie Wahlen im heutigen Sinne fanden also nicht statt. Die Minister des Kaisers waren seine ergebensten Anhänger.
Säulen des Systems waren Armee und Kirche. Das seit dem Wiener Kongress unter europäischer Kontrolle stehende Frankreich war zu Beginn des Kaiserreiches immer noch ein Staatswesen, das für alle europäischen Mächte als revolutionärer Unruheherd galt.
Er wollte verhindern, dass Russland Zugriff auf geographische Schlüsselpositionen wie den Bosporus bekam. Im Mai landeten die alliierten französisch-britischen Truppen bei Warna und im September auf der Krim.
Nach mehreren Schlachten und fast einjähriger Belagerung konnte im September Sewastopol eingenommen werden. Seine Generäle rieten aber von einem solchen Abenteuer ab.
Auch die Stimmung in Frankreich war durch die Dauer des Feldzuges und die hohen, vor allem krankheitsbedingten Verluste der Truppen gedämpft. Im Jahr wurden zwei Attentate auf den Kaiser verübt: am April durch den Italiener Giovanni Pianori und am 8.
September durch Edouard Bellemare. In any war between France and Prussia, France would be entirely alone. Bismarck thought that French vanity would lead to war; he exploited that vanity in the Ems Dispatch in July France took the bait and declared war on Prussia.
This allowed Bismarck and Prussia to present the war to the world as defensive, although Prussia and Bismarck had aggressive plans, and they soon became known in relation to the annexation of the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.
In his memoirs, written long after the war, Bismarck wrote, "I always considered that a war with France would naturally follow a war against Austria I was convinced that the gulf which was created over time between the north and the south of Germany could not be better overcome than by a national war against the neighbouring people who were aggressive against us.
I did not doubt that it was necessary to make a French-German war before the general reorganization of Germany could be realized.
In Bavaria , the largest of the southern German states, unification with mostly Protestant Prussia was being opposed by the Patriotic Party , which favoured a confederacy of Catholic Bavaria with Catholic Austria.
German Protestant public opinion was on the side of unification with Prussia. In France, patriotic sentiment was also growing.
On 8 May , French voters had overwhelmingly supported Napoleon III's program in a national plebiscite, with 7,, votes yes against 1,, votes no, an increase of support of two million votes since the legislative elections in The Emperor was less popular in Paris and the big cities, but highly popular in the French countryside.
Napoleon had named a new foreign minister, Antoine Agenor, the Duke de Gramont , who was hostile to Bismarck. The Emperor was weak and ill, but the more extreme Bonapartists were prepared to show their strength against the republicans and monarchists in the parliament.
In July , Bismarck found a cause for a war in an old dynastic dispute. At the end of , Napoleon III had let it be known to the Prussian king and his Chancellor Bismarck that a Hohenzollern prince on the throne of Spain would not be acceptable to France.
King Wilhelm had no desire to enter into a war against Napoleon III and did not pursue the subject further. At the end of May, however, Bismarck wrote to the father of Leopold, asking him to put pressure on his son to accept the candidacy to be King of Spain.
Leopold, solicited by both his father and Bismarck, agreed. The news of Leopold's candidacy, published 2 July , aroused fury in the French parliament and press.
The government was attacked by both the republicans and monarchist opposition, and by the ultra-Bonapartists, for its weakness against Prussia.
He asked Marshal Leboeuf , the chief of staff of the French army, if the army was prepared for a war against Prussia.
Leboeuf responded that the French soldiers had a rifle superior to the Prussian rifle, that the French artillery was commanded by an elite corps of officers, and that the army "would not lack a button on its puttees ".
He assured the Emperor that the French army could have four hundred thousand men on the Rhine in less than fifteen days. On 10 July, he told Leopold's father that his candidacy should be withdrawn.
Leopold resisted the idea, but finally agreed on the 11th, and the withdrawal of the candidacy was announced on the 12th, a diplomatic victory for Napoleon.
On the evening of the 12th, after meeting with the Empress and with his foreign minister, Gramont, he decided to push his success a little further; he would ask King Wilhelm to guarantee the Prussian government would never again make such a demand for the Spanish throne.
The King told him courteously that he agreed fully with the withdrawal of the Hohenzollern candidacy, but that he could not make promises on behalf of the government for the future.
He considered that the matter was closed. As he was instructed by Gramont, Benedetti asked for another meeting with the King to repeat the request, but the King politely, yet firmly, refused.
Benedetti returned to Paris and the affair seemed finished. However, Bismarck edited the official dispatch of the meeting to make it appear that both sides had been hostile: "His majesty the King," the dispatch read, "refused to meet again with the French ambassador, and let him know, through an aide-de-camp of service, that His Majesty had nothing more to say to the Ambassador.
The Ems telegram had exactly the effect that Bismarck had intended. Once again, public opinion in France was inflamed.
Gramont, the French foreign minister, declared that he felt "he had just received a slap. A crowd of 15,—20, persons, carrying flags and patriotic banners, marched through the streets of Paris, demanding war.
On 19 July , a declaration of war was sent to the Prussian government. When France entered the war, there were patriotic demonstrations in the streets of Paris, with crowds singing La Marseillaise and chanting "To Berlin!
To Berlin! He told General Lepic that he expected the war to be "long and difficult", and wondered, "Who knows if we'll come back? On 28 July, he departed Saint-Cloud by train for the front.
He was accompanied by the year-old Prince Imperial in the uniform of the army, by his military staff, and by a large contingent of chefs and servants in livery.
He was pale and visibly in pain. The Empress remained in Paris as the Regent , as she had done on other occasions when the Emperor was out of the country.
The mobilization of the French army was chaotic. Two hundred thousand soldiers converged on the German frontier, along a front of kilometers, choking all the roads and railways for miles.
Officers and their respective units were unable to find one-another. General Moltke and the German army, with experience mobilizing in the war against Austria, were able to efficiently move three armies of , men to a more concentrated front of just kilometers.
In addition, the German soldiers were backed by a substantial reserve of the Landwehr Territorial defence , with , men, and an additional reserve of , territorial guards.
The French army arrived at the frontier equipped with maps of Germany, but without maps of France—where the actual fighting took place—and without a specific plan of what it was going to do.
On 2 August, Napoleon and the Prince Imperial accompanied the army as it made a tentative crossing of the German border toward the city of Saarbrücken.
The French won a minor skirmish and advanced no further. Napoleon III, very ill, was unable to ride his horse and had to support himself by leaning against a tree.
In the meantime, the Germans had assembled a much larger army opposite Alsace and Lorraine than the French had expected or were aware of. On 4 August , the Germans attacked with overwhelming force against a French division in Alsace at the Battle of Wissembourg German: Weissenburg , forcing it to retreat.
On 6 August, , Germans attacked 35, French soldiers at the Battle of Wörth ; the French lost 19, soldiers killed, wounded and captured, and were forced to retreat.
The French soldiers fought bravely, and French cavalry and infantry attacked the German lines repeatedly, but the Germans had superior logistics, communications, and leadership.
The decisive weapon was the new German Krupp six pound field gun , which had a steel barrel, was loaded by the breech, had a longer range, had a higher rate of fire, and was more accurate than the bronze muzzle-loading French cannons.
The Krupp guns caused terrible casualties in the French ranks. When the news of the French defeats reached Paris on 7 August, it was greeted with disbelief and dismay.
She chose General Cousin-Montauban , better known as the Count of Palikao, seventy-four years old, the former commander of the French expeditionary force to China, as her new prime minister.
Napoleon III proposed returning to Paris, realizing that he was doing no good for the army. The Empress, in charge of the government responded by telegraph, "Don't think of coming back, unless you want to unleash a terrible revolution.
They will say you quit the army to flee the danger. At the front, the Emperor told Marshal Leboeuf, "we've both been dismissed.
On 18 August , the Battle of Gravelotte , the biggest battle of the war, took place in Lorraine between the Germans and the army of Marshal Bazaine.
The Germans suffered 20, casualties and the French 12,, but the Germans emerged as the victors, as Marshal Bazaine's army, with , soldiers, six divisions of cavalry and five hundred cannons, was trapped inside the fortifications of Metz, unable to move.
MacMahon, Marshal Bazaine, and the count of Palikao, with the Empress in Paris, all had different ideas on what the army should do next, and the Emperor had to act as a referee among them.
The Emperor and MacMahon proposed moving their army closer to Paris to protect the city, but on 17 August Bazaine telegraphed to the Emperor: "I urge you to renounce this idea, which seems to abandon the Army at Metz Couldn't you make a powerful diversion toward the Prussian corps, which are already exhausted by so many battles?
The Empress shares my opinion. The Emperor, riding in an open carriage, was jeered, sworn at and insulted by demoralized soldiers. The direction of movement of MacMahon's army was supposed to be secret, but it was published in the French press and thus was quickly known to the German general staff.
Moltke, the German commander, ordered two Prussian armies marching toward Paris to turn towards MacMahon's army. On 30 August, one corps of MacMahon's army was attacked by the Germans at Beaumont , losing five hundred men and forty cannons.
MacMahon, believing he was ahead of the Germans, decided to stop and reorganize his forces at the fortified city of Sedan , in the Ardennes close to the Belgian border.
The Battle of Sedan was a total disaster for the French—the army surrendered to the Prussians and Napoleon himself was made a prisoner of war.
The Germans arrived on 31 August, and by 1 September, occupied the heights around Sedan, placed batteries of artillery, and began to shell the French positions below.
At five o'clock in the morning on 1 September, a German shell seriously wounded MacMahon in the hip. Sedan soon came under bombardment from seven hundred German guns.
During the battle and bombardment, the French lost seventeen thousand killed or wounded and twenty-one thousand captured. One officer of his military escort was killed and two more received wounds.
A doctor accompanying him wrote in his notebook, "If this man has not come here to kill himself, I don't know what he has come to do.
I have not seen him give an order all morning. Finally, at one o'clock in the afternoon, Napoleon emerged from his reverie and ordered a white flag hoisted above the citadel.
He then had a message sent to the Prussian King, who was at Sedan with his army: "Monsieur my brother, not being able to die at the head of my troops, nothing remains for me but to place my sword in the hands of Your Majesty.
Some people believe that, by burying ourselves under the ruins of Sedan, we would have better served my name and my dynasty. It's possible. Nay, to hold in my hand the lives of thousands of men and not to make a sign to save them was something that was beyond my capacity At six o'clock in the morning on 2 September, in the uniform of a general and accompanied by four generals from his staff, Napoleon was taken to the German headquarters at Donchery.
They dictated the terms of the surrender to Napoleon. Napoleon asked that his army be disarmed and allowed to pass into Belgium, but Bismarck refused.
Napoleon told the King that he had not wanted the war, but that public opinion had forced him into it. The Prussian king politely agreed.
It is impossible for me to say what I have suffered and what I am suffering now I would have preferred death to a capitulation so disastrous, and yet, under the present circumstances, it was the only way to avoid the butchering of sixty thousand people.
If only all my torments were concentrated here! I think of you, our son, and our unhappy country. The news of the capitulation reached Paris on 3 September, confirming the rumors that were already circulating in the city.
When the news was given to the Empress that the Emperor and the army were prisoners, she reacted by shouting at the Emperor's personal aide, "No!
An Emperor does not capitulate! He is dead! They are trying to hide it from me. Why didn't he kill himself! Doesn't he know he has dishonored himself?!
From there, on 7 September, she took the yacht of a British official to England. The Second Empire had come to an end. From 5 September until 19 March , Napoleon III and his entourage of thirteen aides were held in comfortable captivity in a castle at Wilhelmshöhe , near Kassel.
General Bazaine, besieged with a large part of the remaining French Army in the fortification of Metz, had secret talks with Bismarck's envoys on 23 September.
The idea was for Bazaine to establish a conservative regime in France, for himself or for Napoleon's son. Bazaine was willing to take over power in France after the Germans had defeated the republic in Paris.
Because of the weakening of the French position overall, Bismarck lost interest in this option. On 27 November, Napoleon composed a memorandum to Bismarck that raised the possibility that the Prussian King might urge the French people to recall him as Emperor after a peace treaty was signed and Paris surrendered.
But by this time, Metz had already fallen, leaving Napoleon without a power basis. Bismarck did not see much chance for a restored empire as Napoleon would look like a marionette of the enemy to the French people.
Bismarck refused to acknowledge the former empress, as this had caused irritations with Britain and Russia. Shortly afterwards, the Germans signed a truce with the French government.
Napoleon continued to write political tracts and letters and dreamed of a return to power. Bonapartist candidates participated in the first elections for the National Assembly on 8 February, but won only five seats.
On 1 March, the newly elected assembly officially declared the removal of the Emperor from power and placed all the blame for the French defeat squarely on him.
He decided to go into exile in England. Napoleon had limited funds; he sold properties and jewels and arrived in England on 20 March He was received by Queen Victoria, who also visited him at Chislehurst.
She had assisted his escape from French prison in He had also paid attention to another English girl, Elizabeth Howard, who later gave birth to a son, whose father not Louis-Napoleon settled property on her to support the son, via a trust whose trustee was Nathaniel Strode.
Strode bought Camden Place in and spent large sums of money transforming it into a French chateau. Strode had also received money from the Emperor, possibly to buy Camden Place and maintain it as a bolt hole.
Napoleon passed his time writing and designing a stove which would be more energy efficient. In the summer of , his health began to worsen.
Doctors recommended surgery to remove his gallstones. After two operations, he became very seriously ill. His last words were, "Isn't it true that we weren't cowards at Sedan?
Louis Napoleon has a historical reputation as a womanizer, yet he said: "It is usually the man who attacks. As for me, I defend myself, and I often capitulate.
During his reign, it was the task of Count Felix Bacciochi , his social secretary, to arrange for trysts and to procure women for the Emperor's favours.
His affairs were not trivial sideshows: they distracted him from governing, affected his relationship with the empress, and diminished him in the views of the other European courts.
By his late forties, Napoleon started to suffer from numerous medical ailments, including kidney disease , bladder stones, chronic bladder and prostate infections, arthritis , gout , obesity , and the chronic effects of smoking.
In , Dr. Robert Ferguson, a consultant called from London, diagnosed a "nervous exhaustion" that had a "debilitating impact upon sexual Napoleon III also directed the building of the French railway network, which contributed to the development of the coal mining and steel industry in France.
This advance radically changed the nature of the French economy, which entered the modern age of large-scale capitalism. The French stock market also expanded prodigiously, with many coal mining and steel companies issuing stocks.
Historians credit Napoleon chiefly for supporting the railways, but not otherwise building the economy. Napoleon's military pressure and Russian mistakes, culminating in the Crimean War, dealt a fatal blow to the Concert of Europe.
It was based on stability and balance of powers, whereas Napoleon attempted to rearrange the world map to France's favour even when it involved radical and potentially revolutionary changes in politics.
A pound cannon designed by France is commonly referred to as a "Napoleon cannon" or "pounder Napoleon" in his honour. The historical reputation of Napoleon III is far below that of his uncle.
In France, such arch-opposition from the age's central literary figure, whose attacks on Napoleon III were obsessive and powerful, made it impossible for a very long time to assess his reign objectively.
Karl Marx , in The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon , famously mocked Napoleon III by saying "Hegel remarks somewhere that all great world-historical facts and personages appear, so to speak, twice.
He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce. Historians by the s saw the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism, but by the s were celebrating it as leading example of a modernizing regime.
His greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris.
He is given high credits for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, and very attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians.
He promoted French business and exports. In international policy, he tried to emulate his uncle, with numerous imperial ventures around the world, as well as wars in Europe.
He badly mishandled the threat from Prussia and found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming force. Historians have also praised his attention to the fate of the working classes and poor people.
Throughout his reign, the emperor worked to alleviate the sufferings of the poor, on occasion breaching the 19th-century economic orthodoxy of freedom and laissez-faire and using state resources or interfering in the market.
Among other things, the Emperor granted the right to strike to French workers in , despite intense opposition from corporate lobbies. National .
Foreign . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First French president and then emperor and member of the House of Bonaparte.
Not to be confused with Napoleon. For other uses, see Louis Napoleon disambiguation. Emperor of the French. Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.
St Michael's Abbey, Farnborough. Further information: French presidential election, Further information: History of rail transport in France.
Main article: Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Main article: Crimean War. Main article: Luxembourg Crisis. Main article: Ems Dispatch.
Further information: Battle of Sedan Andrew , 11 June Knight of the Order of St. Charles , Bonapartism, six lectures delivered in the University of London.
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Price, Roger Randell, Keith Access to History. Wetzel, David University of Wisconsin Press. Zeldin, Theodore. Empire declared. Republic declared.
Bonaparte family. Princess Mary, Mrs. Presidents of France. Styled President of the Republic since , except from to Chief of State and to Chairman of the Provisional Government.
National Convention Directory Consulate. Louis-Jules Trochu. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk.Da Aluminium erst in den ern günstig erzeugt werden Trovatos, war es damals wertvoller als Gold. Napoleon löst Ian Hutchinson mexikanische Republik auf, um ein von Frankreich abhängiges Kaiserreich zu errichten. Er spielte keine politische Rolle mehr. Europa und die Welt. In den sechziger Jahren begann sein Stern zu sinken. Er kannte die Schwäche des Kaisers für junge hübsche Frauen und entsann sich seiner Cousine Ocean Girl. Anderseits machte er Zugeständnisse in der Innenpolitik. Nun musste sich Napoleon III. Orsini gehörte zu den Carbonari, denen sich Napoleon angeschlossen hatte.